Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market By Product Type (Raised-Flange End, Ring-Type Joint End) And By End-Users/Application (Process Industries, Power Industries) Global Market Share, Forecast Data, In-Depth Analysis, And Detailed Overview, and Forecast, 2013 - 2026

  • AMR-1036917
  • May 2021
  • Machinery and tools
  • 117 Pages
The global Cast Steel Check Valves market research report provides complete study and detail analysis of the market. This study includes forecast analysis of the market which is based on global and regional level, whereas the research reports the provides forecast data from 2020-2028 and historic of 2018 and 2019. All the values are based on revenue USD Million. Moreover, the market research report describes various segments of the Cast Steel Check Valves market based on its types, applications and end-use industry. The applications of the market are explained in different industry verticals with reference to major countries across the globe. Along with this, the research report also covers all the major players that are operating in the global Cast Steel Check Valves market. These major players of the market are further studied and analyzed based on various parameters, such as annual market revenue, annual sales of the company, marketing strategy, historic growth and shipment volumes. Based on all the company’s insights, the market research analyst also suggests business strategy and marketing plans for improving the market position of existing participants of Cast Steel Check Valves market.

Apart from this, the market research report also covers drivers and restraints for the global Cast Steel Check Valves market and their impact on the demand and supply during the forecast period. Along with this, the research report also provides Cast Steel Check Valves market trends and opportunities that are based on regional and global level. Furthermore, the market research report also provides the major distributors and manufacturers that are operating in all the key region across the world. The researched data provided in the report is widely used by various industry players to strengthen their distribution channel and improve the geographical reach. In addition, the report also covers all the major players of the global Cast Steel Check Valves market and its key offerings and solutions. The report also provides recent mergers and acquisitions of these key players.

XYZ Market Strategic Analysis:
In 2019, the global XYZ market was valued at US$ xx Mn, and it is expected to reach at US$ xx Mn at a CAGR of xx% during 2020-2028.

The data which is provided in the market research report is analyzed and evaluated with the help of various marketing tools, such as SWOT analysis, Poster’s Five Force analysis, PESTEL analysis, value chain analysis, player positioning analysis and market share analysis. Therefore, this analysis tools helps the analyst to evaluate the Cast Steel Check Valves market based on various parameters such as capital investments, impact of consumer’s preferences, economies of scale, manufacturing rights and patents, existing distribution channels, switching costs, government regulations and brand loyalty. 
 
Report Parameters Details of Parameter
Market Size xx Million
Based Year 2019
Forecast Period Covered 2019 – 2028
Units for value Revenue in USD million and CAGR from 2020 to 2028
Covered Segments Component, Types, Applications, End-Users, and more.
Product Type Raised-Flange End, Ring-Type Joint End, Butt-Weld End
Applications Process Industries, Power Industries, Others
Region Covered North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa
Companies Covered GWC Valve, Velan, Powell Valves, Fortune Valve, Oswal Valves, Davis Valve, Beric Davis

Cast Steel Check Valves Market Segment Analysis:
The Cast Steel Check Valves market research report segments the market based on its types, applications and end-use industry. All the segments of the market are analyzed and evaluated based on current and future trends of the market. The data for the segments and its categories is provided from 2018 to 2028. 

Cast Steel Check Valves Market, by Type: Raised-Flange End, Ring-Type Joint End, Butt-Weld End

Cast Steel Check Valves Market, by Application: Process Industries, Power Industries, Others

Major Key Players for Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market:
The Cast Steel Check Valves market research report offers the company profile of major key players including progress trends, competitive landscape breakdown, and key in regions development status. GWC Valve, Velan, Powell Valves, Fortune Valve, Oswal Valves, Davis Valve, Beric Davis

Geographic Coverage for Cast Steel Check Valves Market:
The market research report on global Cast Steel Check Valves market offers complete analysis across various regions across the world. The Cast Steel Check Valves market is distributed into various regions such as North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East and Africa. The global leading market share as per the region is evaluated after considering Cast Steel Check Valves market revenue, sales, shares, recent developments, innovations and growth rates. This section of regional analysis provides widespread evaluation of the industry from various countries and regions.

North America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value and Forecast
  • US
  • Canada

Europe Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value and Forecast
  • UK
  • Germany
  • France
  •  Rest of Europe

Asia Pacific Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value and Forecast
  • China
  • Japan
  • India
  • Rest of Asia Pacific

Latin America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value and Forecast
  • Mexico
  • Brazil
  • Rest of Latin America

Middle East and Africa Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value and Forecast
  • GCC Countries
  • South Africa
  • Rest of Middle East and Africa



Key highlights of the Cast Steel Check Valves market report:
  • The report provides key trends of the global Cast Steel Check Valves market
  • The report also covers consumer preferences and current industry growth
  • Key products or solutions offered by the main players in the Cast Steel Check Valves industry
  • The report covers all the recent developments of the Cast Steel Check Valves market and helps to provide current industry updates
  • The report covers a detailed look over the global Cast Steel Check Valves Industry and provides with significant actionable insights
  • The Cast Steel Check Valves market estimation from 2020-2028 and historical data for 2018 and 2019
  • The market study also provides data on changing market dynamics, market intelligence, current and future market trends
  • The report also analyses the microeconomic and macroeconomic factors that are affecting the global Cast Steel Check Valves market
  • In-depth analysis of the market’s competitive landscape and detailed information about the vendors
  • The report also offers key market drivers, restrains, trends and opportunities with present and future impact on the market
  • Detailed information about the major players or manufacturers of the global Cast Steel Check Valves market
  • Comprehensive analysis of the Cast Steel Check Valves market segments based on its types, applications and end-use industry

Key Analytical Areas:
The report aims to offer a complete solution to various businesses operating in the Cast Steel Check Valves market in making strategic decisions based on credible information and actionable insights. Thereby, the report covers various aspects of your requirements such as industry overview, market dynamics, regional analysis and competitive landscape. The report aims to provide insights to businesses in the Cast Steel Check Valves market for numerous purposes such as:

     1. Strategic Decision Making:
With the help of this report, key decision makers can quickly analyze and identify growth opportunities in terms of numerous segments across various geographical regions. Thereby, this report enables organizations to identify and make strategic investments in specific market segments in order to gain maximum return on investment.

      2.  Actionable Insights:
The report offers a deep dive into how companies are leveraging market conditions to make the most in the Cast Steel Check Valves market. Thereby, the report offers numerous actionable insights into the best practices and key success factors relevant in the Cast Steel Check Valves market. Using the insights included in the report, businesses can make quick decisions to achieve success in business operations.

      3. Competitive Snapshot:
In addition, to detailed information on the companies operating in the Cast Steel Check Valves market, the report also includes a competitive snapshot of all the companies covered in the report. Thereby, this offers a visual representation of how all the companies stand comparatively based on their competencies, geographic presence, market hold, years of operations, employee and financial strength, among others.

Have query on this report?

Make an Enquiry
1. Preface
     1.1. Report Scope and Description
     1.2. Research Methodology
          1.2.1. Phase I-Secondary Research
          1.2.2. Phase II-Primary Research
          1.2.3. Phase II-Expert Panel Review
          1.2.4. Assumptions
          1.2.5. Approach Adopted

2. Executive Summary
     2.1. Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Snapshot
          2.1.1. Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market By Type,2019
               2.1.1.1.Raised-Flange End
               2.1.1.2.Ring-Type Joint End
               2.1.1.3.Butt-Weld End
          2.1.2. Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market By Application,2019
               2.1.2.1.Process Industries
               2.1.2.2.Power Industries
               2.1.2.3.Others
          2.1.3. Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market By End-use,2019
          2.1.4. Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market By Geography,2019

3. Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Dynamics
     3.1. Market Overview
     3.2. Market Inclination Insights Analysis
     3.3. Drivers
     3.4. Challenges
     3.5. Future Prospects
     3.6. Impact Analysis of Drivers and Challenges During the Forecast Period, (2020-2028)

4. Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028 
     4.1. Overview
          4.1.1. Market Share Analysis By Type, 2019 vs.2028
          4.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition By Type, 2020
     4.2. Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028

5. Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028 
     5.1. Overview
          5.1.1. Market Share Analysis By Application, 2019 vs.2028
          5.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition By Application, 2020
     5.2. Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028

6. Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028 
     6.1. Overview
          6.1.1. Market Share Analysis By End-use, 2019 vs.2028
          6.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition By End-use, 2020
     6.2. Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028

7. Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Geography, 2018 – 2028
     7.1. Overview
          7.1.1. Market Share Analysis by Geography, 2019 vs. 2028
          7.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition by Geography, 2020
     7.2. North America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.2.1. North America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.2.1.1. U.S.
               7.2.1.2. Canada
          7.2.2. North America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.2.3. North America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.2.4. North America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.3. Europe Cast Steel Check Valves Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.3.1.  Europe Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.3.1.1. U.K.
               7.3.1.2. Germany
               7.3.1.3. France
               7.3.1.4. Rest of Europe
          7.3.2. Europe Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.3.3. Europe Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.3.4. Europe Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.4. Asia Pacific Cast Steel Check Valves Market Analysis , 2018 – 2028
          7.4.1.  Asia Pacific Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.4.1.1. China
               7.4.1.2. Japan
               7.4.1.3. India
               7.4.1.4. Rest of Asia Pacific
          7.4.2. Asia Pacific Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.4.3. Asia Pacific Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.4.4. Asia Pacific Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.5. Latin America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.5.1.  Latin America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.5.1.1. Brazil
               7.5.1.2. Mexico
               7.5.1.3. Rest of Latin America
          7.5.2. Latin America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.5.3. Latin America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.5.4. Latin America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.6. Middle East & Africa (MEA) Cast Steel Check Valves Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.6.1.  MEA Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Region, 2018 – 2028 
               7.6.1.1. GCC Countries
               7.6.1.2. South Africa
               7.6.1.3. Rest of MEA
          7.6.2. MEA Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.6.3. MEA Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.6.4. MEA Cast Steel Check Valves Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028

8. Company Profiles
     8.1. Competitive Analysis 
     8.2. Market Positioning of Key Vendors 
     8.3. Key Strategies adopted by the Leading Players
     8.4. Key Cast Steel Check Valves Providers
        8.4.1 GWC Valve
                8.4.1.1 Business Description
                8.4.1.2 GWC Valve Geographic Operations
                8.4.1.3 GWC Valve Financial Information
                8.4.1.4 GWC Valve Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.1.5 GWC Valve Key Developments
        8.4.2 Velan
                8.4.2.1 Business Description
                8.4.2.2 Velan Geographic Operations
                8.4.2.3 Velan Financial Information
                8.4.2.4 Velan Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.2.5 Velan Key Developments
        8.4.3 Powell Valves
                8.4.3.1 Business Description
                8.4.3.2 Powell Valves Geographic Operations
                8.4.3.3 Powell Valves Financial Information
                8.4.3.4 Powell Valves Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.3.5 Powell Valves Key Developments
        8.4.4 Fortune Valve
                8.4.4.1 Business Description
                8.4.4.2 Fortune Valve Geographic Operations
                8.4.4.3 Fortune Valve Financial Information
                8.4.4.4 Fortune Valve Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.4.5 Fortune Valve Key Developments
        8.4.5 Oswal Valves
                8.4.5.1 Business Description
                8.4.5.2 Oswal Valves Geographic Operations
                8.4.5.3 Oswal Valves Financial Information
                8.4.5.4 Oswal Valves Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.5.5 Oswal Valves Key Developments
        8.4.6 Davis Valve
                8.4.6.1 Business Description
                8.4.6.2 Davis Valve Geographic Operations
                8.4.6.3 Davis Valve Financial Information
                8.4.6.4 Davis Valve Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.6.5 Davis Valve Key Developments
        8.4.7 Beric Davis
                8.4.7.1 Business Description
                8.4.7.2 Beric Davis Geographic Operations
                8.4.7.3 Beric Davis Financial Information
                8.4.7.4 Beric Davis Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.7.5 Beric Davis Key Developments

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1 Market Snapshot: Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market 
TABLE 2 Impact Indicators 
TABLE 3 Impact Analysis of Drivers and Restraints 
TABLE 4 North America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 5 North America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 6 North America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 7 Europe Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 8 Europe Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 9 Europe Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 10 Asia Pacific Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 11 Asia Pacific Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 12 Asia Pacific Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 13 Latin America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 14 Latin America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 15 Latin America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn)
TABLE 16 MEA Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 17 MEA Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 18 MEA Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn)

LIST OF FIGURES

FIG. 1 Global Cast Steel Check Valves: Market Segmentation 
FIG. 2 Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market: Research Methodology 
FIG. 3 Top-Down and Bottom-up Approach 
FIG. 4 Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market, By Type, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 5 Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market, By Application, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 6 Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market, By End-use, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 7 Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market, By Geography, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 8 Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue and Growth, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) (Y-o-Y %)
FIG. 9 Attractive Investment Proposition 
FIG. 10 Market Positioning of Key Cast Steel Check Valves Providers, 2019
FIG. 11 Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue Contribution, By Type, 2019 & 2028 (Value %) 
FIG. 12 Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue Contribution, By Application, 2019 & 2028 (Value %) 
FIG. 13 Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue Contribution, By End-use, 2019 & 2028 (Value %) 
FIG. 14 North America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 15 Europe Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 16 Asia Pacific Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 17 Latin America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG. 18 MEA Cast Steel Check Valves Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)

Key Takeaways:

1. Market value and estimate of the Cast Steel Check Valves market for the period from 2020 to 2028
2. Compounded annual growth rate (CAGR%) for individual segments in various regional markets for a period from 2020 to 2028
3. Value chain analysis
4. Market share study combined with competitive landscape of major players
5. Profiles of major market players covering overall business operations, geographic occurrence, product portfolio, financial status and news coverage 

List of Tables

TABLE  Market Snapshot: Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market
TABLE  Impact Pointers
TABLE  Impact Analysis of Drivers and Restraints
TABLE  North America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  North America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  North America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Europe Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Europe Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Europe Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Asia Pacific Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Asia Pacific Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Asia Pacific Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Latin America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Latin America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Latin America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  MEA Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  MEA Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  MEA Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  GWC Valve: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Velan: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Powell Valves: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Fortune Valve: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Oswal Valves: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Davis Valve: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Beric Davis: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
 

List of Figures

FIG.  Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market: Research Methodology
FIG.  Top-Down and Bottom Up Approach
FIG.  Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market, By Segment1, 2019 (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market, By Segment2, 2019 (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market, By Geography, 2019 (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value and Growth, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) (Y-o-Y %)
FIG.  Attractive Investment Proposition
FIG.  Market Positioning of Key Cast Steel Check Valves Providers, 2016
FIG.  Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value Share, By Segment1, 2019 & 2028 (% Value)
FIG.  Global Raised-Flange End Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Ring-Type Joint End Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Butt-Weld End Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value Share, By Segment2, 2019 & 2028 (% Value)
FIG.  Global Process Industries Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Power Industries Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Others Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  U.S. Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Canada Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  UK Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Germany Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  France Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of Europe Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  China Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Japan Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  India Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of Asia Pacific Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Mexico Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Brazil Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of Latin America Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  GCC Countries Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  South Africa Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of MEA Cast Steel Check Valves Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)