Global Rolled Ring Market By Product Type (Stainless Rolled Rings, Alloy Rolled Rings) And By End-Users/Application (Automotive, Aerospace) Global Market Share, Forecast Data, In-Depth Analysis, And Detailed Overview, and Forecast, 2013 - 2026

  • AMR-1041474
  • May 2021
  • Materials and Chemicals
  • 111 Pages
The Rolled Ring market research report provides an in-depth analysis of the currents trends, latest developments, scenario, market size, various drivers, restraints, and major players along with their profile details. Research report offers the historic data for year 2018 and 2019 and also provides the forecast data from year 2020 to 2028 which is based on revenue (USD Million). With the help of all these information research report helps the market participants to improve market positions. With the help of all these insights Rolled Ring market research report recommends a business strategy for present market participants to strengthen their position in the market.

According to the report, the Rolled Ring market size was USD xx million and it is expected to reach USD xx million by the end of 2028, with a CAGR of xx% during 2020-2028. While considering the volume shipments the global Rolled Ring market stood at xx (Units/Tons) in 2020 and expected to cross near about xx (units/Tons) by the end of forecast period.

Furthermore, the research report includes the detailed information about major players and provides the data regarding the current market scenario as well as upcoming market opportunities or challenges. Similarly, in segment report covers the types, and applications according to the countries and key regions. The research report consists the various drivers and restraints for Rolled Ring market along with their effects over the forecast period. Similarly, according to the region Rolled Ring market research report includes the study of opportunities available in the market situation.

The Rolled Ring market research report provides the in-depth data analysis by using the various graphs, figures, charts, and tables. Furthermore, the report provides the different business challenges which are impacting market growth in all direction.
 
Report Parameters Details of Parameter
Market Size xx Million
Based Year 2019
Forecast Period Covered 2019 – 2028
Units for value Revenue in USD million and CAGR from 2020 to 2028
Covered Segments Component, Types, Applications, End-Users, and more.
Product Type Stainless Rolled Rings, Alloy Rolled Rings, Carbon Rolled Rings
Applications Automotive, Aerospace, Agricultural, General Industrial, Other
Region Covered North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa
Companies Covered Precision Castparts Corp, Arconic, Nippon Steel & SumitomoMetal, KOBELCO, Thyssenkrupp, Aichi Steel, Eramet Group, American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings, Ferralloy, McInnes Rolled Rings

Global Rolled Ring Market Segmentation by Regions:
In regional analysis, Rolled Ring market research report provides the detailed analysis from various regions and also contains the detailed analysis of country. Along with market revenue, market value report also offers the forecast analysis for the following countries and regions. Global Rolled Ring market report covers the various geographical regions such as North America, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. Also, various countries included are Canada, U.K., France, the U.S., Japan, China, India, and Germany and so on.

North America Region for Rolled Ring Market: Value and Forecast
  • U.S.
  • Canada
 
Europe Region for Rolled Ring Market: Value and Forecast
  • UK
  • Germany
  • France
  • Rest of the Europe
 
Asia Pacific Region for Rolled Ring Market: Value and Forecast
  • China
  • Japan
  • India
  • Rest of the Asia Pacific
 
Latin America Region for Rolled Ring Market: Value and Forecast
  • Mexico
  • Brazil
  • Rest of the Latin America
 
Middle East and Africa for Rolled Ring Market: Value and Forecast
  • GCC Countries
  • South Africa
  • Rest of Middle East and Africa



Global Rolled Ring Market Segmentation by Type:
On the basis of product type, global Rolled Ring market research report provides the production, revenue, price, and market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into: Stainless Rolled Rings, Alloy Rolled Rings, Carbon Rolled Rings

Global Rolled Ring Market Segmentation by Applications:
On the basis of the end users/applications, Rolled Ring research report analyze the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including: Automotive, Aerospace, Agricultural, General Industrial, Other

Major Key Players for Global Rolled Ring Market:
The Rolled Ring market research report offers the company profile of major key players including progress trends, competitive landscape breakdown, and key in regions development status. Precision Castparts Corp, Arconic, Nippon Steel & SumitomoMetal, KOBELCO, Thyssenkrupp, Aichi Steel, Eramet Group, American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings, Ferralloy, McInnes Rolled Rings

Important Points Covered by Report:
  • To analyze the value of the Rolled Ring market, according to the key region.
  • To study the Rolled Ring market current trends, prospects and also their participation in the entire sector.
  • Report consists the in-depth information related to the region/countries, major key players, current trends and their analysis, product type, applications, and other background information
  • Report provides the detailed information about drivers, restraints and future scope of Rolled Ring market.
  • Report covers the information about historic data analysis as well as forecast period analysis.

Global Rolled Ring research report consist the information about overall sales and revenue during the historic and forecasted period of 2018 to 2028. Additionally, this report covers the inside and out factual examination and the market elements and requests which give an entire situation of the business.

Key Analytical Areas:
The report aims to offer a complete solution to various businesses operating in the Rolled Ring market in making strategic decisions based on credible information and actionable insights. Thereby, the report covers various aspects of your requirements such as industry overview, market dynamics, regional analysis and competitive landscape. The report aims to provide insights to businesses in the Rolled Ring market for numerous purposes such as:

    1. Strategic Decision Making:
With the help of this report, key decision makers can quickly analyze and identify growth opportunities in terms of numerous segments across various geographical regions. Thereby, this report enables organizations to identify and make strategic investments in specific market segments in order to gain maximum return on investment.

     2. Actionable Insights:
The report offers a deep dive into how companies are leveraging market conditions to make the most in the Rolled Ring market. Thereby, the report offers numerous actionable insights into the best practices and key success factors relevant in the Rolled Ring market. Using the insights included in the report, businesses can make quick decisions to achieve success in business operations.

     3. Competitive Snapshot:
In addition, to detailed information on the companies operating in the Rolled Ring market, the report also includes a competitive snapshot of all the companies covered in the report. Thereby, this offers a visual representation of how all the companies stand comparatively based on their competencies, geographic presence, market hold, years of operations, employee and financial strength, among others.

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1. Preface
     1.1. Report Scope and Description
     1.2. Research Methodology
          1.2.1. Phase I-Secondary Research
          1.2.2. Phase II-Primary Research
          1.2.3. Phase II-Expert Panel Review
          1.2.4. Assumptions
          1.2.5. Approach Adopted

2. Executive Summary
     2.1. Global Rolled Ring Market Snapshot
          2.1.1. Global Rolled Ring Market By Type,2019
               2.1.1.1.Stainless Rolled Rings
               2.1.1.2.Alloy Rolled Rings
               2.1.1.3.Carbon Rolled Rings
          2.1.2. Global Rolled Ring Market By Application,2019
               2.1.2.1.Automotive
               2.1.2.2.Aerospace
               2.1.2.3.Agricultural
               2.1.2.4.General Industrial
               2.1.2.5.Other
          2.1.3. Global Rolled Ring Market By End-use,2019
          2.1.4. Global Rolled Ring Market By Geography,2019

3. Global Rolled Ring Market Dynamics
     3.1. Market Overview
     3.2. Market Inclination Insights Analysis
     3.3. Drivers
     3.4. Challenges
     3.5. Future Prospects
     3.6. Impact Analysis of Drivers and Challenges During the Forecast Period, (2020-2028)

4. Global Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028 
     4.1. Overview
          4.1.1. Market Share Analysis By Type, 2019 vs.2028
          4.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition By Type, 2020
     4.2. Global Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028

5. Global Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028 
     5.1. Overview
          5.1.1. Market Share Analysis By Application, 2019 vs.2028
          5.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition By Application, 2020
     5.2. Global Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028

6. Global Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028 
     6.1. Overview
          6.1.1. Market Share Analysis By End-use, 2019 vs.2028
          6.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition By End-use, 2020
     6.2. Global Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028

7. Global Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Geography, 2018 – 2028
     7.1. Overview
          7.1.1. Market Share Analysis by Geography, 2019 vs. 2028
          7.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition by Geography, 2020
     7.2. North America Rolled Ring Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.2.1. North America Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.2.1.1. U.S.
               7.2.1.2. Canada
          7.2.2. North America Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.2.3. North America Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.2.4. North America Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.3. Europe Rolled Ring Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.3.1.  Europe Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.3.1.1. U.K.
               7.3.1.2. Germany
               7.3.1.3. France
               7.3.1.4. Rest of Europe
          7.3.2. Europe Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.3.3. Europe Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.3.4. Europe Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.4. Asia Pacific Rolled Ring Market Analysis , 2018 – 2028
          7.4.1.  Asia Pacific Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.4.1.1. China
               7.4.1.2. Japan
               7.4.1.3. India
               7.4.1.4. Rest of Asia Pacific
          7.4.2. Asia Pacific Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.4.3. Asia Pacific Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.4.4. Asia Pacific Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.5. Latin America Rolled Ring Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.5.1.  Latin America Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.5.1.1. Brazil
               7.5.1.2. Mexico
               7.5.1.3. Rest of Latin America
          7.5.2. Latin America Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.5.3. Latin America Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.5.4. Latin America Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.6. Middle East & Africa (MEA) Rolled Ring Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.6.1.  MEA Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Region, 2018 – 2028 
               7.6.1.1. GCC Countries
               7.6.1.2. South Africa
               7.6.1.3. Rest of MEA
          7.6.2. MEA Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.6.3. MEA Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.6.4. MEA Rolled Ring Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028

8. Company Profiles
     8.1. Competitive Analysis 
     8.2. Market Positioning of Key Vendors 
     8.3. Key Strategies adopted by the Leading Players
     8.4. Key Rolled Ring Providers
        8.4.1 Precision Castparts Corp
                8.4.1.1 Business Description
                8.4.1.2 Precision Castparts Corp Geographic Operations
                8.4.1.3 Precision Castparts Corp Financial Information
                8.4.1.4 Precision Castparts Corp Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.1.5 Precision Castparts Corp Key Developments
        8.4.2 Arconic
                8.4.2.1 Business Description
                8.4.2.2 Arconic Geographic Operations
                8.4.2.3 Arconic Financial Information
                8.4.2.4 Arconic Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.2.5 Arconic Key Developments
        8.4.3 Nippon Steel & SumitomoMetal
                8.4.3.1 Business Description
                8.4.3.2 Nippon Steel & SumitomoMetal Geographic Operations
                8.4.3.3 Nippon Steel & SumitomoMetal Financial Information
                8.4.3.4 Nippon Steel & SumitomoMetal Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.3.5 Nippon Steel & SumitomoMetal Key Developments
        8.4.4 KOBELCO
                8.4.4.1 Business Description
                8.4.4.2 KOBELCO Geographic Operations
                8.4.4.3 KOBELCO Financial Information
                8.4.4.4 KOBELCO Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.4.5 KOBELCO Key Developments
        8.4.5 Thyssenkrupp
                8.4.5.1 Business Description
                8.4.5.2 Thyssenkrupp Geographic Operations
                8.4.5.3 Thyssenkrupp Financial Information
                8.4.5.4 Thyssenkrupp Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.5.5 Thyssenkrupp Key Developments
        8.4.6 Aichi Steel
                8.4.6.1 Business Description
                8.4.6.2 Aichi Steel Geographic Operations
                8.4.6.3 Aichi Steel Financial Information
                8.4.6.4 Aichi Steel Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.6.5 Aichi Steel Key Developments
        8.4.7 Eramet Group
                8.4.7.1 Business Description
                8.4.7.2 Eramet Group Geographic Operations
                8.4.7.3 Eramet Group Financial Information
                8.4.7.4 Eramet Group Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.7.5 Eramet Group Key Developments
        8.4.8 American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings
                8.4.8.1 Business Description
                8.4.8.2 American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings Geographic Operations
                8.4.8.3 American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings Financial Information
                8.4.8.4 American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.8.5 American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings Key Developments
        8.4.9 Ferralloy
                8.4.9.1 Business Description
                8.4.9.2 Ferralloy Geographic Operations
                8.4.9.3 Ferralloy Financial Information
                8.4.9.4 Ferralloy Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.9.5 Ferralloy Key Developments
        8.4.10 McInnes Rolled Rings
                8.4.10.1 Business Description
                8.4.10.2 McInnes Rolled Rings Geographic Operations
                8.4.10.3 McInnes Rolled Rings Financial Information
                8.4.10.4 McInnes Rolled Rings Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.10.5 McInnes Rolled Rings Key Developments

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1 Market Snapshot: Global Rolled Ring Market 
TABLE 2 Impact Indicators 
TABLE 3 Impact Analysis of Drivers and Restraints 
TABLE 4 North America Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 5 North America Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 6 North America Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 7 Europe Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 8 Europe Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 9 Europe Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 10 Asia Pacific Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 11 Asia Pacific Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 12 Asia Pacific Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 13 Latin America Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 14 Latin America Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 15 Latin America Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn)
TABLE 16 MEA Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 17 MEA Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 18 MEA Rolled Ring Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn)

LIST OF FIGURES

FIG. 1 Global Rolled Ring: Market Segmentation 
FIG. 2 Global Rolled Ring Market: Research Methodology 
FIG. 3 Top-Down and Bottom-up Approach 
FIG. 4 Global Rolled Ring Market, By Type, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 5 Global Rolled Ring Market, By Application, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 6 Global Rolled Ring Market, By End-use, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 7 Global Rolled Ring Market, By Geography, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 8 Global Rolled Ring Market Revenue and Growth, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) (Y-o-Y %)
FIG. 9 Attractive Investment Proposition 
FIG. 10 Market Positioning of Key Rolled Ring Providers, 2019
FIG. 11 Global Rolled Ring Market Revenue Contribution, By Type, 2019 & 2028 (Value %) 
FIG. 12 Global Rolled Ring Market Revenue Contribution, By Application, 2019 & 2028 (Value %) 
FIG. 13 Global Rolled Ring Market Revenue Contribution, By End-use, 2019 & 2028 (Value %) 
FIG. 14 North America Rolled Ring Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 15 Europe Rolled Ring Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 16 Asia Pacific Rolled Ring Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 17 Latin America Rolled Ring Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG. 18 MEA Rolled Ring Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)

Key Takeaways:

1. Market value and estimate of the Rolled Ring market for the period from 2020 to 2028
2. Compounded annual growth rate (CAGR%) for individual segments in various regional markets for a period from 2020 to 2028
3. Value chain analysis
4. Market share study combined with competitive landscape of major players
5. Profiles of major market players covering overall business operations, geographic occurrence, product portfolio, financial status and news coverage 

List of Tables

TABLE  Market Snapshot: Global Rolled Ring Market
TABLE  Impact Pointers
TABLE  Impact Analysis of Drivers and Restraints
TABLE  North America Rolled Ring Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  North America Rolled Ring Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  North America Rolled Ring Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Europe Rolled Ring Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Europe Rolled Ring Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Europe Rolled Ring Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Asia Pacific Rolled Ring Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Asia Pacific Rolled Ring Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Asia Pacific Rolled Ring Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Latin America Rolled Ring Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Latin America Rolled Ring Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Latin America Rolled Ring Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  MEA Rolled Ring Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  MEA Rolled Ring Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  MEA Rolled Ring Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Precision Castparts Corp: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Arconic: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Nippon Steel & SumitomoMetal: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  KOBELCO: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Thyssenkrupp: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Aichi Steel: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Eramet Group: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Ferralloy: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  McInnes Rolled Rings: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
 

List of Figures

FIG.  Global Rolled Ring Market: Research Methodology
FIG.  Top-Down and Bottom Up Approach
FIG.  Global Rolled Ring Market, By Segment1, 2019 (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Rolled Ring Market, By Segment2, 2019 (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Rolled Ring Market, By Geography, 2019 (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Rolled Ring Market Value and Growth, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) (Y-o-Y %)
FIG.  Attractive Investment Proposition
FIG.  Market Positioning of Key Rolled Ring Providers, 2016
FIG.  Global Rolled Ring Market Value Share, By Segment1, 2019 & 2028 (% Value)
FIG.  Global Stainless Rolled Rings Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Alloy Rolled Rings Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Carbon Rolled Rings Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Rolled Ring Market Value Share, By Segment2, 2019 & 2028 (% Value)
FIG.  Global Automotive Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Aerospace Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Agricultural Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global General Industrial Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Other Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  U.S. Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Canada Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  UK Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Germany Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  France Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of Europe Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  China Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Japan Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  India Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of Asia Pacific Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Mexico Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Brazil Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of Latin America Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  GCC Countries Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  South Africa Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of MEA Rolled Ring Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)