Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market By Product Type (Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP)) And By End-Users/Application (Beverages, Cosmetic & Personal Care) Global Market Share, Forecast Data, In-Depth Analysis, And Detailed Overview, and Forecast, 2013 - 2026

  • AMR-1041270
  • May 2021
  • Machinery and tools
  • 119 Pages
The Smooth Hinge Caps market research report provides an in-depth analysis of the currents trends, latest developments, scenario, market size, various drivers, restraints, and major players along with their profile details. Research report offers the historic data for year 2018 and 2019 and also provides the forecast data from year 2020 to 2028 which is based on revenue (USD Million). With the help of all these information research report helps the market participants to improve market positions. With the help of all these insights Smooth Hinge Caps market research report recommends a business strategy for present market participants to strengthen their position in the market.

According to the report, the Smooth Hinge Caps market size was USD xx million and it is expected to reach USD xx million by the end of 2028, with a CAGR of xx% during 2020-2028. While considering the volume shipments the global Smooth Hinge Caps market stood at xx (Units/Tons) in 2020 and expected to cross near about xx (units/Tons) by the end of forecast period.

Furthermore, the research report includes the detailed information about major players and provides the data regarding the current market scenario as well as upcoming market opportunities or challenges. Similarly, in segment report covers the types, and applications according to the countries and key regions. The research report consists the various drivers and restraints for Smooth Hinge Caps market along with their effects over the forecast period. Similarly, according to the region Smooth Hinge Caps market research report includes the study of opportunities available in the market situation.

The Smooth Hinge Caps market research report provides the in-depth data analysis by using the various graphs, figures, charts, and tables. Furthermore, the report provides the different business challenges which are impacting market growth in all direction.
 
Report Parameters Details of Parameter
Market Size xx Million
Based Year 2019
Forecast Period Covered 2019 – 2028
Units for value Revenue in USD million and CAGR from 2020 to 2028
Covered Segments Component, Types, Applications, End-Users, and more.
Product Type Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Others
Applications Beverages, Cosmetic & Personal Care, Pharmaceutical
Region Covered North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa
Companies Covered Nippon Closures Co Ltd, Interpac International Corporation, B&C PLASTICS LTD, RPC Group, Closure Systems International, Bericap GmbH, Global Closure Systems, AptarGroup

Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Segmentation by Regions:
In regional analysis, Smooth Hinge Caps market research report provides the detailed analysis from various regions and also contains the detailed analysis of country. Along with market revenue, market value report also offers the forecast analysis for the following countries and regions. Global Smooth Hinge Caps market report covers the various geographical regions such as North America, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. Also, various countries included are Canada, U.K., France, the U.S., Japan, China, India, and Germany and so on.

North America Region for Smooth Hinge Caps Market: Value and Forecast
  • U.S.
  • Canada
 
Europe Region for Smooth Hinge Caps Market: Value and Forecast
  • UK
  • Germany
  • France
  • Rest of the Europe
 
Asia Pacific Region for Smooth Hinge Caps Market: Value and Forecast
  • China
  • Japan
  • India
  • Rest of the Asia Pacific
 
Latin America Region for Smooth Hinge Caps Market: Value and Forecast
  • Mexico
  • Brazil
  • Rest of the Latin America
 
Middle East and Africa for Smooth Hinge Caps Market: Value and Forecast
  • GCC Countries
  • South Africa
  • Rest of Middle East and Africa



Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Segmentation by Type:
On the basis of product type, global Smooth Hinge Caps market research report provides the production, revenue, price, and market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into: Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Others

Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Segmentation by Applications:
On the basis of the end users/applications, Smooth Hinge Caps research report analyze the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including: Beverages, Cosmetic & Personal Care, Pharmaceutical

Major Key Players for Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market:
The Smooth Hinge Caps market research report offers the company profile of major key players including progress trends, competitive landscape breakdown, and key in regions development status. Nippon Closures Co Ltd, Interpac International Corporation, B&C PLASTICS LTD, RPC Group, Closure Systems International, Bericap GmbH, Global Closure Systems, AptarGroup

Important Points Covered by Report:
  • To analyze the value of the Smooth Hinge Caps market, according to the key region.
  • To study the Smooth Hinge Caps market current trends, prospects and also their participation in the entire sector.
  • Report consists the in-depth information related to the region/countries, major key players, current trends and their analysis, product type, applications, and other background information
  • Report provides the detailed information about drivers, restraints and future scope of Smooth Hinge Caps market.
  • Report covers the information about historic data analysis as well as forecast period analysis.

Global Smooth Hinge Caps research report consist the information about overall sales and revenue during the historic and forecasted period of 2018 to 2028. Additionally, this report covers the inside and out factual examination and the market elements and requests which give an entire situation of the business.

Key Analytical Areas:
The report aims to offer a complete solution to various businesses operating in the Smooth Hinge Caps market in making strategic decisions based on credible information and actionable insights. Thereby, the report covers various aspects of your requirements such as industry overview, market dynamics, regional analysis and competitive landscape. The report aims to provide insights to businesses in the Smooth Hinge Caps market for numerous purposes such as:

    1. Strategic Decision Making:
With the help of this report, key decision makers can quickly analyze and identify growth opportunities in terms of numerous segments across various geographical regions. Thereby, this report enables organizations to identify and make strategic investments in specific market segments in order to gain maximum return on investment.

     2. Actionable Insights:
The report offers a deep dive into how companies are leveraging market conditions to make the most in the Smooth Hinge Caps market. Thereby, the report offers numerous actionable insights into the best practices and key success factors relevant in the Smooth Hinge Caps market. Using the insights included in the report, businesses can make quick decisions to achieve success in business operations.

     3. Competitive Snapshot:
In addition, to detailed information on the companies operating in the Smooth Hinge Caps market, the report also includes a competitive snapshot of all the companies covered in the report. Thereby, this offers a visual representation of how all the companies stand comparatively based on their competencies, geographic presence, market hold, years of operations, employee and financial strength, among others.

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1. Preface
     1.1. Report Scope and Description
     1.2. Research Methodology
          1.2.1. Phase I-Secondary Research
          1.2.2. Phase II-Primary Research
          1.2.3. Phase II-Expert Panel Review
          1.2.4. Assumptions
          1.2.5. Approach Adopted

2. Executive Summary
     2.1. Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Snapshot
          2.1.1. Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market By Type,2019
               2.1.1.1.Polyethylene (PE)
               2.1.1.2.Polypropylene (PP)
               2.1.1.3.Others
          2.1.2. Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market By Application,2019
               2.1.2.1.Beverages
               2.1.2.2.Cosmetic & Personal Care
               2.1.2.3.Pharmaceutical
          2.1.3. Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market By End-use,2019
          2.1.4. Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market By Geography,2019

3. Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Dynamics
     3.1. Market Overview
     3.2. Market Inclination Insights Analysis
     3.3. Drivers
     3.4. Challenges
     3.5. Future Prospects
     3.6. Impact Analysis of Drivers and Challenges During the Forecast Period, (2020-2028)

4. Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028 
     4.1. Overview
          4.1.1. Market Share Analysis By Type, 2019 vs.2028
          4.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition By Type, 2020
     4.2. Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028

5. Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028 
     5.1. Overview
          5.1.1. Market Share Analysis By Application, 2019 vs.2028
          5.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition By Application, 2020
     5.2. Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028

6. Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028 
     6.1. Overview
          6.1.1. Market Share Analysis By End-use, 2019 vs.2028
          6.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition By End-use, 2020
     6.2. Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028

7. Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Geography, 2018 – 2028
     7.1. Overview
          7.1.1. Market Share Analysis by Geography, 2019 vs. 2028
          7.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition by Geography, 2020
     7.2. North America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.2.1. North America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.2.1.1. U.S.
               7.2.1.2. Canada
          7.2.2. North America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.2.3. North America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.2.4. North America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.3. Europe Smooth Hinge Caps Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.3.1.  Europe Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.3.1.1. U.K.
               7.3.1.2. Germany
               7.3.1.3. France
               7.3.1.4. Rest of Europe
          7.3.2. Europe Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.3.3. Europe Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.3.4. Europe Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.4. Asia Pacific Smooth Hinge Caps Market Analysis , 2018 – 2028
          7.4.1.  Asia Pacific Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.4.1.1. China
               7.4.1.2. Japan
               7.4.1.3. India
               7.4.1.4. Rest of Asia Pacific
          7.4.2. Asia Pacific Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.4.3. Asia Pacific Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.4.4. Asia Pacific Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.5. Latin America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.5.1.  Latin America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.5.1.1. Brazil
               7.5.1.2. Mexico
               7.5.1.3. Rest of Latin America
          7.5.2. Latin America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.5.3. Latin America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.5.4. Latin America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.6. Middle East & Africa (MEA) Smooth Hinge Caps Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.6.1.  MEA Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Region, 2018 – 2028 
               7.6.1.1. GCC Countries
               7.6.1.2. South Africa
               7.6.1.3. Rest of MEA
          7.6.2. MEA Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.6.3. MEA Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.6.4. MEA Smooth Hinge Caps Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028

8. Company Profiles
     8.1. Competitive Analysis 
     8.2. Market Positioning of Key Vendors 
     8.3. Key Strategies adopted by the Leading Players
     8.4. Key Smooth Hinge Caps Providers
        8.4.1 Nippon Closures Co Ltd
                8.4.1.1 Business Description
                8.4.1.2 Nippon Closures Co Ltd Geographic Operations
                8.4.1.3 Nippon Closures Co Ltd Financial Information
                8.4.1.4 Nippon Closures Co Ltd Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.1.5 Nippon Closures Co Ltd Key Developments
        8.4.2 Interpac International Corporation
                8.4.2.1 Business Description
                8.4.2.2 Interpac International Corporation Geographic Operations
                8.4.2.3 Interpac International Corporation Financial Information
                8.4.2.4 Interpac International Corporation Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.2.5 Interpac International Corporation Key Developments
        8.4.3 B&C PLASTICS LTD
                8.4.3.1 Business Description
                8.4.3.2 B&C PLASTICS LTD Geographic Operations
                8.4.3.3 B&C PLASTICS LTD Financial Information
                8.4.3.4 B&C PLASTICS LTD Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.3.5 B&C PLASTICS LTD Key Developments
        8.4.4 RPC Group
                8.4.4.1 Business Description
                8.4.4.2 RPC Group Geographic Operations
                8.4.4.3 RPC Group Financial Information
                8.4.4.4 RPC Group Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.4.5 RPC Group Key Developments
        8.4.5 Closure Systems International
                8.4.5.1 Business Description
                8.4.5.2 Closure Systems International Geographic Operations
                8.4.5.3 Closure Systems International Financial Information
                8.4.5.4 Closure Systems International Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.5.5 Closure Systems International Key Developments
        8.4.6 Bericap GmbH
                8.4.6.1 Business Description
                8.4.6.2 Bericap GmbH Geographic Operations
                8.4.6.3 Bericap GmbH Financial Information
                8.4.6.4 Bericap GmbH Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.6.5 Bericap GmbH Key Developments
        8.4.7 Global Closure Systems
                8.4.7.1 Business Description
                8.4.7.2 Global Closure Systems Geographic Operations
                8.4.7.3 Global Closure Systems Financial Information
                8.4.7.4 Global Closure Systems Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.7.5 Global Closure Systems Key Developments
        8.4.8 AptarGroup
                8.4.8.1 Business Description
                8.4.8.2 AptarGroup Geographic Operations
                8.4.8.3 AptarGroup Financial Information
                8.4.8.4 AptarGroup Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.8.5 AptarGroup Key Developments

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1 Market Snapshot: Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market 
TABLE 2 Impact Indicators 
TABLE 3 Impact Analysis of Drivers and Restraints 
TABLE 4 North America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 5 North America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 6 North America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 7 Europe Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 8 Europe Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 9 Europe Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 10 Asia Pacific Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 11 Asia Pacific Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 12 Asia Pacific Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 13 Latin America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 14 Latin America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 15 Latin America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn)
TABLE 16 MEA Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 17 MEA Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 18 MEA Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn)

LIST OF FIGURES

FIG. 1 Global Smooth Hinge Caps: Market Segmentation 
FIG. 2 Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market: Research Methodology 
FIG. 3 Top-Down and Bottom-up Approach 
FIG. 4 Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market, By Type, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 5 Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market, By Application, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 6 Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market, By End-use, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 7 Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market, By Geography, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 8 Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue and Growth, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) (Y-o-Y %)
FIG. 9 Attractive Investment Proposition 
FIG. 10 Market Positioning of Key Smooth Hinge Caps Providers, 2019
FIG. 11 Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue Contribution, By Type, 2019 & 2028 (Value %) 
FIG. 12 Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue Contribution, By Application, 2019 & 2028 (Value %) 
FIG. 13 Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue Contribution, By End-use, 2019 & 2028 (Value %) 
FIG. 14 North America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 15 Europe Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 16 Asia Pacific Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 17 Latin America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG. 18 MEA Smooth Hinge Caps Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)

Key Takeaways:

1. Market value and estimate of the Smooth Hinge Caps market for the period from 2020 to 2028
2. Compounded annual growth rate (CAGR%) for individual segments in various regional markets for a period from 2020 to 2028
3. Value chain analysis
4. Market share study combined with competitive landscape of major players
5. Profiles of major market players covering overall business operations, geographic occurrence, product portfolio, financial status and news coverage 

List of Tables

TABLE  Market Snapshot: Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market
TABLE  Impact Pointers
TABLE  Impact Analysis of Drivers and Restraints
TABLE  North America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  North America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  North America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Europe Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Europe Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Europe Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Asia Pacific Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Asia Pacific Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Asia Pacific Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Latin America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Latin America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Latin America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  MEA Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  MEA Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  MEA Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Nippon Closures Co Ltd: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Interpac International Corporation: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  B&C PLASTICS LTD: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  RPC Group: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Closure Systems International: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Bericap GmbH: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Global Closure Systems: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  AptarGroup: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
 

List of Figures

FIG.  Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market: Research Methodology
FIG.  Top-Down and Bottom Up Approach
FIG.  Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market, By Segment1, 2019 (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market, By Segment2, 2019 (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market, By Geography, 2019 (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value and Growth, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) (Y-o-Y %)
FIG.  Attractive Investment Proposition
FIG.  Market Positioning of Key Smooth Hinge Caps Providers, 2016
FIG.  Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value Share, By Segment1, 2019 & 2028 (% Value)
FIG.  Global Polyethylene (PE) Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Polypropylene (PP) Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Others Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value Share, By Segment2, 2019 & 2028 (% Value)
FIG.  Global Beverages Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Cosmetic & Personal Care Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Pharmaceutical Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  U.S. Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Canada Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  UK Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Germany Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  France Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of Europe Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  China Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Japan Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  India Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of Asia Pacific Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Mexico Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Brazil Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of Latin America Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  GCC Countries Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  South Africa Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of MEA Smooth Hinge Caps Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)