Global Speciality Starch Market By Product Type (Large Granule Size, Medium Granule Size) And By End-Users/Application (Food Industry, Medical Industry) Global Market Share, Forecast Data, In-Depth Analysis, And Detailed Overview, and Forecast, 2013 - 2026

  • AMR-1039745
  • May 2021
  • Materials and Chemicals
  • 117 Pages
The global Speciality Starch market research report provides complete study and detail analysis of the market. This study includes forecast analysis of the market which is based on global and regional level, whereas the research reports the provides forecast data from 2020-2028 and historic of 2018 and 2019. All the values are based on revenue USD Million. Moreover, the market research report describes various segments of the Speciality Starch market based on its types, applications and end-use industry. The applications of the market are explained in different industry verticals with reference to major countries across the globe. Along with this, the research report also covers all the major players that are operating in the global Speciality Starch market. These major players of the market are further studied and analyzed based on various parameters, such as annual market revenue, annual sales of the company, marketing strategy, historic growth and shipment volumes. Based on all the company’s insights, the market research analyst also suggests business strategy and marketing plans for improving the market position of existing participants of Speciality Starch market.

Apart from this, the market research report also covers drivers and restraints for the global Speciality Starch market and their impact on the demand and supply during the forecast period. Along with this, the research report also provides Speciality Starch market trends and opportunities that are based on regional and global level. Furthermore, the market research report also provides the major distributors and manufacturers that are operating in all the key region across the world. The researched data provided in the report is widely used by various industry players to strengthen their distribution channel and improve the geographical reach. In addition, the report also covers all the major players of the global Speciality Starch market and its key offerings and solutions. The report also provides recent mergers and acquisitions of these key players.

XYZ Market Strategic Analysis:
In 2019, the global XYZ market was valued at US$ xx Mn, and it is expected to reach at US$ xx Mn at a CAGR of xx% during 2020-2028.

The data which is provided in the market research report is analyzed and evaluated with the help of various marketing tools, such as SWOT analysis, Poster’s Five Force analysis, PESTEL analysis, value chain analysis, player positioning analysis and market share analysis. Therefore, this analysis tools helps the analyst to evaluate the Speciality Starch market based on various parameters such as capital investments, impact of consumer’s preferences, economies of scale, manufacturing rights and patents, existing distribution channels, switching costs, government regulations and brand loyalty. 
 
Report Parameters Details of Parameter
Market Size xx Million
Based Year 2019
Forecast Period Covered 2019 – 2028
Units for value Revenue in USD million and CAGR from 2020 to 2028
Covered Segments Component, Types, Applications, End-Users, and more.
Product Type Large Granule Size, Medium Granule Size, Small Granule Size
Applications Food Industry, Medical Industry
Region Covered North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa
Companies Covered Cargill, Royal DSM, Tate & Lyle, Givaudan Flavors, DuPont, Sensient Technologies, Ingredion Incorporated, CHR. Hansen, Kerry Groups, Archer Daniels Midland

Speciality Starch Market Segment Analysis:
The Speciality Starch market research report segments the market based on its types, applications and end-use industry. All the segments of the market are analyzed and evaluated based on current and future trends of the market. The data for the segments and its categories is provided from 2018 to 2028. 

Speciality Starch Market, by Type: Large Granule Size, Medium Granule Size, Small Granule Size

Speciality Starch Market, by Application: Food Industry, Medical Industry

Major Key Players for Global Speciality Starch Market:
The Speciality Starch market research report offers the company profile of major key players including progress trends, competitive landscape breakdown, and key in regions development status. Cargill, Royal DSM, Tate & Lyle, Givaudan Flavors, DuPont, Sensient Technologies, Ingredion Incorporated, CHR. Hansen, Kerry Groups, Archer Daniels Midland

Geographic Coverage for Speciality Starch Market:
The market research report on global Speciality Starch market offers complete analysis across various regions across the world. The Speciality Starch market is distributed into various regions such as North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East and Africa. The global leading market share as per the region is evaluated after considering Speciality Starch market revenue, sales, shares, recent developments, innovations and growth rates. This section of regional analysis provides widespread evaluation of the industry from various countries and regions.

North America Speciality Starch Market Value and Forecast
  • US
  • Canada

Europe Speciality Starch Market Value and Forecast
  • UK
  • Germany
  • France
  •  Rest of Europe

Asia Pacific Speciality Starch Market Value and Forecast
  • China
  • Japan
  • India
  • Rest of Asia Pacific

Latin America Speciality Starch Market Value and Forecast
  • Mexico
  • Brazil
  • Rest of Latin America

Middle East and Africa Speciality Starch Market Value and Forecast
  • GCC Countries
  • South Africa
  • Rest of Middle East and Africa



Key highlights of the Speciality Starch market report:
  • The report provides key trends of the global Speciality Starch market
  • The report also covers consumer preferences and current industry growth
  • Key products or solutions offered by the main players in the Speciality Starch industry
  • The report covers all the recent developments of the Speciality Starch market and helps to provide current industry updates
  • The report covers a detailed look over the global Speciality Starch Industry and provides with significant actionable insights
  • The Speciality Starch market estimation from 2020-2028 and historical data for 2018 and 2019
  • The market study also provides data on changing market dynamics, market intelligence, current and future market trends
  • The report also analyses the microeconomic and macroeconomic factors that are affecting the global Speciality Starch market
  • In-depth analysis of the market’s competitive landscape and detailed information about the vendors
  • The report also offers key market drivers, restrains, trends and opportunities with present and future impact on the market
  • Detailed information about the major players or manufacturers of the global Speciality Starch market
  • Comprehensive analysis of the Speciality Starch market segments based on its types, applications and end-use industry

Key Analytical Areas:
The report aims to offer a complete solution to various businesses operating in the Speciality Starch market in making strategic decisions based on credible information and actionable insights. Thereby, the report covers various aspects of your requirements such as industry overview, market dynamics, regional analysis and competitive landscape. The report aims to provide insights to businesses in the Speciality Starch market for numerous purposes such as:

     1. Strategic Decision Making:
With the help of this report, key decision makers can quickly analyze and identify growth opportunities in terms of numerous segments across various geographical regions. Thereby, this report enables organizations to identify and make strategic investments in specific market segments in order to gain maximum return on investment.

      2.  Actionable Insights:
The report offers a deep dive into how companies are leveraging market conditions to make the most in the Speciality Starch market. Thereby, the report offers numerous actionable insights into the best practices and key success factors relevant in the Speciality Starch market. Using the insights included in the report, businesses can make quick decisions to achieve success in business operations.

      3. Competitive Snapshot:
In addition, to detailed information on the companies operating in the Speciality Starch market, the report also includes a competitive snapshot of all the companies covered in the report. Thereby, this offers a visual representation of how all the companies stand comparatively based on their competencies, geographic presence, market hold, years of operations, employee and financial strength, among others.

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1. Preface
     1.1. Report Scope and Description
     1.2. Research Methodology
          1.2.1. Phase I-Secondary Research
          1.2.2. Phase II-Primary Research
          1.2.3. Phase II-Expert Panel Review
          1.2.4. Assumptions
          1.2.5. Approach Adopted

2. Executive Summary
     2.1. Global Speciality Starch Market Snapshot
          2.1.1. Global Speciality Starch Market By Type,2019
               2.1.1.1.Large Granule Size
               2.1.1.2.Medium Granule Size
               2.1.1.3.Small Granule Size
          2.1.2. Global Speciality Starch Market By Application,2019
               2.1.2.1.Food Industry
               2.1.2.2.Medical Industry
          2.1.3. Global Speciality Starch Market By End-use,2019
          2.1.4. Global Speciality Starch Market By Geography,2019

3. Global Speciality Starch Market Dynamics
     3.1. Market Overview
     3.2. Market Inclination Insights Analysis
     3.3. Drivers
     3.4. Challenges
     3.5. Future Prospects
     3.6. Impact Analysis of Drivers and Challenges During the Forecast Period, (2020-2028)

4. Global Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028 
     4.1. Overview
          4.1.1. Market Share Analysis By Type, 2019 vs.2028
          4.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition By Type, 2020
     4.2. Global Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028

5. Global Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028 
     5.1. Overview
          5.1.1. Market Share Analysis By Application, 2019 vs.2028
          5.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition By Application, 2020
     5.2. Global Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028

6. Global Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028 
     6.1. Overview
          6.1.1. Market Share Analysis By End-use, 2019 vs.2028
          6.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition By End-use, 2020
     6.2. Global Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028

7. Global Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Geography, 2018 – 2028
     7.1. Overview
          7.1.1. Market Share Analysis by Geography, 2019 vs. 2028
          7.1.2. Attractive Investment Proposition by Geography, 2020
     7.2. North America Speciality Starch Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.2.1. North America Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.2.1.1. U.S.
               7.2.1.2. Canada
          7.2.2. North America Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.2.3. North America Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.2.4. North America Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.3. Europe Speciality Starch Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.3.1.  Europe Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.3.1.1. U.K.
               7.3.1.2. Germany
               7.3.1.3. France
               7.3.1.4. Rest of Europe
          7.3.2. Europe Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.3.3. Europe Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.3.4. Europe Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.4. Asia Pacific Speciality Starch Market Analysis , 2018 – 2028
          7.4.1.  Asia Pacific Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.4.1.1. China
               7.4.1.2. Japan
               7.4.1.3. India
               7.4.1.4. Rest of Asia Pacific
          7.4.2. Asia Pacific Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.4.3. Asia Pacific Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.4.4. Asia Pacific Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.5. Latin America Speciality Starch Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.5.1.  Latin America Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Country, 2018 – 2028 
               7.5.1.1. Brazil
               7.5.1.2. Mexico
               7.5.1.3. Rest of Latin America
          7.5.2. Latin America Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.5.3. Latin America Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.5.4. Latin America Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028
     7.6. Middle East & Africa (MEA) Speciality Starch Market Analysis, 2018 – 2028 
          7.6.1.  MEA Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Region, 2018 – 2028 
               7.6.1.1. GCC Countries
               7.6.1.2. South Africa
               7.6.1.3. Rest of MEA
          7.6.2. MEA Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Type, 2018 – 2028
          7.6.3. MEA Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By Application, 2018 – 2028
          7.6.4. MEA Speciality Starch Market Size (US$), By End-use, 2018 – 2028

8. Company Profiles
     8.1. Competitive Analysis 
     8.2. Market Positioning of Key Vendors 
     8.3. Key Strategies adopted by the Leading Players
     8.4. Key Speciality Starch Providers
        8.4.1 Cargill
                8.4.1.1 Business Description
                8.4.1.2 Cargill Geographic Operations
                8.4.1.3 Cargill Financial Information
                8.4.1.4 Cargill Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.1.5 Cargill Key Developments
        8.4.2 Royal DSM
                8.4.2.1 Business Description
                8.4.2.2 Royal DSM Geographic Operations
                8.4.2.3 Royal DSM Financial Information
                8.4.2.4 Royal DSM Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.2.5 Royal DSM Key Developments
        8.4.3 Tate & Lyle
                8.4.3.1 Business Description
                8.4.3.2 Tate & Lyle Geographic Operations
                8.4.3.3 Tate & Lyle Financial Information
                8.4.3.4 Tate & Lyle Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.3.5 Tate & Lyle Key Developments
        8.4.4 Givaudan Flavors
                8.4.4.1 Business Description
                8.4.4.2 Givaudan Flavors Geographic Operations
                8.4.4.3 Givaudan Flavors Financial Information
                8.4.4.4 Givaudan Flavors Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.4.5 Givaudan Flavors Key Developments
        8.4.5 DuPont
                8.4.5.1 Business Description
                8.4.5.2 DuPont Geographic Operations
                8.4.5.3 DuPont Financial Information
                8.4.5.4 DuPont Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.5.5 DuPont Key Developments
        8.4.6 Sensient Technologies
                8.4.6.1 Business Description
                8.4.6.2 Sensient Technologies Geographic Operations
                8.4.6.3 Sensient Technologies Financial Information
                8.4.6.4 Sensient Technologies Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.6.5 Sensient Technologies Key Developments
        8.4.7 Ingredion Incorporated
                8.4.7.1 Business Description
                8.4.7.2 Ingredion Incorporated Geographic Operations
                8.4.7.3 Ingredion Incorporated Financial Information
                8.4.7.4 Ingredion Incorporated Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.7.5 Ingredion Incorporated Key Developments
        8.4.8 CHR. Hansen
                8.4.8.1 Business Description
                8.4.8.2 CHR. Hansen Geographic Operations
                8.4.8.3 CHR. Hansen Financial Information
                8.4.8.4 CHR. Hansen Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.8.5 CHR. Hansen Key Developments
        8.4.9 Kerry Groups
                8.4.9.1 Business Description
                8.4.9.2 Kerry Groups Geographic Operations
                8.4.9.3 Kerry Groups Financial Information
                8.4.9.4 Kerry Groups Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.9.5 Kerry Groups Key Developments
        8.4.10 Archer Daniels Midland
                8.4.10.1 Business Description
                8.4.10.2 Archer Daniels Midland Geographic Operations
                8.4.10.3 Archer Daniels Midland Financial Information
                8.4.10.4 Archer Daniels Midland Product Positions/Portfolio
                8.4.10.5 Archer Daniels Midland Key Developments

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1 Market Snapshot: Global Speciality Starch Market 
TABLE 2 Impact Indicators 
TABLE 3 Impact Analysis of Drivers and Restraints 
TABLE 4 North America Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 5 North America Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 6 North America Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 7 Europe Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 8 Europe Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 9 Europe Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 10 Asia Pacific Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 11 Asia Pacific Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 12 Asia Pacific Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 13 Latin America Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 14 Latin America Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 15 Latin America Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn)
TABLE 16 MEA Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By Type, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 17 MEA Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By Application, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn) 
TABLE 18 MEA Speciality Starch Market Revenue, By End-use, 2018 – 2028 (US$ Mn)

LIST OF FIGURES

FIG. 1 Global Speciality Starch: Market Segmentation 
FIG. 2 Global Speciality Starch Market: Research Methodology 
FIG. 3 Top-Down and Bottom-up Approach 
FIG. 4 Global Speciality Starch Market, By Type, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 5 Global Speciality Starch Market, By Application, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 6 Global Speciality Starch Market, By End-use, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 7 Global Speciality Starch Market, By Geography, 2019 (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 8 Global Speciality Starch Market Revenue and Growth, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) (Y-o-Y %)
FIG. 9 Attractive Investment Proposition 
FIG. 10 Market Positioning of Key Speciality Starch Providers, 2019
FIG. 11 Global Speciality Starch Market Revenue Contribution, By Type, 2019 & 2028 (Value %) 
FIG. 12 Global Speciality Starch Market Revenue Contribution, By Application, 2019 & 2028 (Value %) 
FIG. 13 Global Speciality Starch Market Revenue Contribution, By End-use, 2019 & 2028 (Value %) 
FIG. 14 North America Speciality Starch Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 15 Europe Speciality Starch Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 16 Asia Pacific Speciality Starch Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) 
FIG. 17 Latin America Speciality Starch Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG. 18 MEA Speciality Starch Market Revenue, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)

Key Takeaways:

1. Market value and estimate of the Speciality Starch market for the period from 2020 to 2028
2. Compounded annual growth rate (CAGR%) for individual segments in various regional markets for a period from 2020 to 2028
3. Value chain analysis
4. Market share study combined with competitive landscape of major players
5. Profiles of major market players covering overall business operations, geographic occurrence, product portfolio, financial status and news coverage 

List of Tables

TABLE  Market Snapshot: Global Speciality Starch Market
TABLE  Impact Pointers
TABLE  Impact Analysis of Drivers and Restraints
TABLE  North America Speciality Starch Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  North America Speciality Starch Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  North America Speciality Starch Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Europe Speciality Starch Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Europe Speciality Starch Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Europe Speciality Starch Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Asia Pacific Speciality Starch Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Asia Pacific Speciality Starch Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Asia Pacific Speciality Starch Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Latin America Speciality Starch Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Latin America Speciality Starch Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Latin America Speciality Starch Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  MEA Speciality Starch Market Value, By Segment1, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  MEA Speciality Starch Market Value, By Segment2, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  MEA Speciality Starch Market Value, By Country, 2018 – 2028
TABLE  Cargill: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Royal DSM: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Tate & Lyle: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Givaudan Flavors: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  DuPont: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Sensient Technologies: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Ingredion Incorporated: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  CHR. Hansen: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Kerry Groups: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
TABLE  Archer Daniels Midland: Company Snapshot (Company Details, Geographical Presence, Product Portfolio, Recent News and Announcements)
 

List of Figures

FIG.  Global Speciality Starch Market: Research Methodology
FIG.  Top-Down and Bottom Up Approach
FIG.  Global Speciality Starch Market, By Segment1, 2019 (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Speciality Starch Market, By Segment2, 2019 (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Speciality Starch Market, By Geography, 2019 (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Speciality Starch Market Value and Growth, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn) (Y-o-Y %)
FIG.  Attractive Investment Proposition
FIG.  Market Positioning of Key Speciality Starch Providers, 2016
FIG.  Global Speciality Starch Market Value Share, By Segment1, 2019 & 2028 (% Value)
FIG.  Global Large Granule Size Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Medium Granule Size Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Small Granule Size Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Speciality Starch Market Value Share, By Segment2, 2019 & 2028 (% Value)
FIG.  Global Food Industry Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Global Medical Industry Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  U.S. Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Canada Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  UK Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Germany Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  France Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of Europe Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  China Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Japan Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  India Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of Asia Pacific Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Mexico Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Brazil Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of Latin America Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  GCC Countries Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  South Africa Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)
FIG.  Rest of MEA Speciality Starch Market Value, 2018 – 2028, (US$ Mn)